Monday, November 12, 2012

Notes - Network Standardization

The following are notes from Computer Networks written by Tanenbaum 5th edition.
  • There are many different network vendors and suppliers
    • requires standardization to reduce chaos allow communication
  • WiFi Alliance
    • trade group to work on interoperability
    • protocol standard defines protocol over the wire, but not inside the box
    • de facto
      • http protocol standard, part of www browsers
      • bluetooth, developed by Ericsson became standard
    • de jure
      • standards adopted through rules by formality
      • ITU
      • ISO
      • IETF
      • IEEE
  • Relationships can be complicated, 3GPP(Third Generation Partnership Project)
    • collaboration between telecom associations
Who's Who in the Telecommunications World
  • legal status of world's telephone companies change
  • United States
    • over 2000 separate telephone companies at extreme high
    • few more added with AT&T breakup 1984
    • 1996 Telecommunications Act
  • Countries have complete monopoly on all communication, mail, telegraph, telephone, radio, tv
    • PTT(Post, Telegraph and Telephone)
    • European's have slowly privatized their PTTs
  • ITU(International Telecommunication Union)
    • standardization
    • ITU-T is for telecommunications
      • previously called CCITT 1993 for french name
      • makes technical recommendations about telephone, telegraph, and data communications
      • done by study groups
      • SG 15 standardizes dsl
      • H.264 MPEG-4 AVC
      • X.509 public key
    • ITU-R is for Radiocommunications
    • ITU-D is for development sector
Who's Who in the International Standards World
  • ISO (International Standards Organization)
    • voluntary nontreaty org founded in 1946
    • issues standards on
      • nuts and blots
      • telephone poles
      • fishing nets
      • women's underwear
    • cooperates with ITU-T
    • OSI standards
  • Procedure in ISO
    • form a working group to come up with CD(Committee draft)
    • if approved revised document called DIS(Draft International Standard circulated)
    • if again circulated and approved becomes IS(International Standard)
    • may take several years
  • NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    • part of department of commerce
  • IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
    • largest professional org in the world
    • develops standards and publishes journals

Who's Who in the Internet Standards World
  • ITU-T and ISO meetings are populated by corporate officials and government workers specific to standardization
  • IAB(Internet Activities Board)
    • informal committee to oversee ARPANET
    • headed task force, for example when a new routing algorithm needed, members would critique it and 
    • technical reports called RFCs (Request for Comments)
      • chronologically storred at www.ietf.org/rfc
  • IRTF(Internet Research Task Force) and IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force)
    • made subsidiary to IAB
    • self perpetuating
    • IETF dealt with short term engineering issues
    • IRTF deals with long term research
    • addresses new apps, user info, OSI integration, routing and addressing, security, network management, and standards
  • Internet Society
  • Formal standardization process formed Proposed Standard explained in an RFC
  • advance Draft Standard stage, implementation rigorously test at least 2 independent sites 4 months
  • then IAB convinced RFC can become Internet Standard
  • W3C(World Wide Web Consortium)
    • protocols and guidelines to grow web long term

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