Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Shale Gas Analysis

These are notes from Shale Gas EIA Study

  • Review of Shale Gas and Shale Oil
  • Background
    • hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have greatly expanded the profitability of natural gas
    • started to grow in 1950s
    • mid 1970s partnership of DOE (Department of Energy) and GRI (Gas Research Institute)
      • grew technologies
    • large scale production in shale occurred with Mitchell Energy and Development Corporation
    • EIA and NEMS(National Energy Modeling System) presented Shale in mid 1990s, only a game changer for the past 5 years
  • Scope and Results
    • shale resources 
    • total 750 trillion cubic feet technically recoverable
    • 86 percent located in northeast and southwest and gulf coast
    • 23.9 billion barrels onshore in lower 48 states
    • Major areas onshore current development
      • Monterey, Santa Maria, San Joaquin Basin, Bakken and Eagle Ford
  • Methodology
    • INTEK shale report made from public company data and commercial databases
    • Issues and Concerns
      • gas and oil wells for shale are new and untested for long term production
      • production located to sweet spots of highest production
      • shale plays are very large only portions have been tested
    • Can have more production with technical advances and untested methods
    • Resource estimation still evolving

The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

Notes from Hydraulic Fracturing Process

  • Hydraulic Fracturing
    • produces fractures in rock formations to stimulate flow of natural gas or oil
    • increases volumes that can be recovered
  • Process
    • pump large quantities of fluids at high pressure down a wellbore into target rock formation
    • commonly consists of
      • water
      • proppant (sand, ceramic pellets)
      • chemical additives 
  • Use
    • internal pressure of rock formation causes fluid to return to surface through wellbore called flowback
    • contains injected chemicals and other natural minerals, stored on site
    • many times injected underground for disposal
  • Used many times for "Unconventional" gas production
    • relatively new technology
    • Shale Gas extraction
      • Shale rock formations important source
      • present in many locations in the united states
    • Tight Sands
      • gas bearing fine grained sandstones or carbonates
      • hydraulic fracturing is a required process here

Natural Gas Notes

Notes from Natural Gas Report
  • Natural Gas Implementation
    • truck stops require restyled fuel pumps
    • ports will send new tankers
  • Oil and Natural gas on the rise reported by US EIA energy information administration
    • potential boom, growth outstrips demand
    • Texas to Pennsylvania
  • Natural gas for fuel rise 12 percent per year through 2040
  • LNG(Liquified Natural Gas)
    • 40 percent below price of diesel for next 3 decades
  • EIA projects predict rise from less than 1 percent of energy used in transport to 4% by 2040
    • not for average drivers only truckers
    • infrastructure is limiting factor as well as amount to put in vehicle
  • Industrial Renewal
    • manufacturing output increases 2 percent per year over 3 decades
    • Petrochemical companies such as Dow, Formosa Plastics, Shell, Chevron
      • plans to build, reopen or expand NA production
    • EIA's outlook is fairly positive until 2025 where other nations development produces more efficient facilities
  • Export Battle
    • rapid US move into natural gas
    • 1.6 trillion cubic feet by 2027
    • exporting by ship requires
      • super chill of gas at liquefacation plants, shrink to 1/600th size
      • insulate tankers
      • costs billions of dollars
    • proposed 9 LNG export projects
    • potential to export in solid form instead of liquid
  • No revolution
    • not projected to unseat oil, or displace coal for electricity
    • expected to share 30% natural gas by 2040
    • reduction in carbon emissions
    • EIA projection not in line with pure sustainability, little uptick in electric vehicles, and clean renewables

Shale Oil Notes

Notes from Shale Oil Report
  • Shale Gas
    • increase the supply of fossil fuels
    • cut demand from China's economic growth
  • Extraction
    • horizontal drilling
    • hydraulic fracturing
    • Half a million barrels of il a day flowing from bakken field
    • Belfer Center Report Oil the Next Revolution
      • shale oil could provide 6 million barrels a day by 2020
      • US imports 11 million barrels a day in 2011
      • can be near energy independence
  • Economically puts pressure on global oil prices
  • United States have only experienced first stage of low natural gas prices
    • major stimulus if oil prices reduce
    • greater range of options in dealing with foreign states
    • European advantages as well
  • Political drawbacks
    • If US no longer has dependence to oil in Gulf, Europe has reduced security
    • developing natural gas transportation for their own security
  • China
    • potentially 36 trillion cubic meters of recoverable shale resources
  • Russia and Saudi Arabia reduction in power and economy destabilize markets in these countries

Intro to Smart Grid Table of Contents

These are notes taken for a class on an intro to the smart grid.
  1. Week One
    1. Shale Oil
    2. Natural Gas Nation
    3. Hydraulic Fracturing
    4. Shale Gas and Oil Analysis
    5. EPA Coal Plant Regulation
    6. Energy Water Nexus
  2. Week Two
    1. Solar Energy Technologies
    2. Wind Energy Technologies

Wednesday, January 9, 2013


The following are notes from Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers written by Farlow.

Introduction to Partial Differential Equations
  • What are PDE's
    • PDE's are Differential equations where the unknown function depends on more than one variable
    • examples
      • ut = uxx (heat equation in one dimension)
      • ut = uxx + uyy (heat equation in two dimensions)
      • urr + 1/r u + 1/r2 u θθ (Laplace's Equation in Polar Coordinates)
  • Why are PDE's Useful?
    • relate space and time 
    • used to describe laws of physics
  • Solving Partial Differential Equations
    • Separation of Variables
    • Integral Transforms
    • Change of Coordinates
    • Transformation of the Dependent Variable
    • Numerical Methods
    • Perturbation Methods
    • Impulse Response
    • Integral Equations
    • Calculus of Varaiations
  • 6 basic classifications of PDEs
    • order of equation
      • ut = uxx (second order)
    • Number of variables
      • ut = uxx (two variables: x and t)
    • Linearity
      • Linear equations are when all the dependent variables u and its derivates are not multiplied against one another or squared
      • A uxx +B uxy +C uyy +D u+E u+F u = G
      • Where A,B,C,D,E,F,G are constants or given functions of x and y
    • Homogeneity
      • equations are homogeneous if G is 0 for all x and y, if it is nonzero it is non-homogeneous
    • Kinds of Coefficients
      • constant coefficients versus variable coefficients
    • Three basic types of linear equations
      • parabolic
        • describes heat flow and diffusion
        • satsify B- 4AC = 0
      • hyperbolic
        • describe vibrating systems
        • B- 4AC > 0
      • elliptic
        • steady state phenomena
        • B- 4AC < 0

Farlow's Partial Differential Equations ToC

Table of Contents

The following is a table of contents for notes from Farlow's Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers.

  1. Introduction
  2. Diffusion Type Problems
  3. Diffusion Type Problems (Parabolic Equations)
  4. Boundary Conditions for Diffusion Type Problems
  5. Derivation of the Heat Equation
  6. Separation of Variables
  7. Transforming Nonhomogeneous BCs into Homogeneous BC
  8. Solving More Complicated Problems by Separation of Variables
  9. Transforming Hard Equations into Easier ones
  10. Solving Nonhomogenous PDEs (Eigenfunction Expansions)
  11. Integral Transforms (Sine and Cosine Transforms)
  12. The Fourier Series and Transform
  13. The Fourier Transform and its Applications to PDEs
  14. The Laplace Transform
  15. Duhamel's Principle
  16. The Convection Term in Diffusion Problems
  17. The One-Dimensional Wave Equation (Hyperbolic Equation)
  18. The D'Alembert Solution of the Wave Equation
  19. More on the D'Alembert Solution
  20. Boundary Conditions associated with the Wave Equation
  21. The Finite Vibrating String (Standing Waves)
  22. The Vibrating Beam (Fourth-Order PDE)
  23. Dimensionless Problems
  24. Classification of PDEs (Canonical Form of the Hyperbolic Equation)
  25. The Wave Equation in Two and Three Dimensions (Free space)
  26. The Finite Fourier Transforms (Sine and Cosine Transforms)
  27. Superposition
  28. First order Equations (Methods and Characteristics)
  29. Nonlinear First-Order Equations (Conservation Equations)

Saturday, January 5, 2013

DnD Towers Campaign - First Tower

The First Tower

Recruits! Its time for a history lesson, so gather round and listen well.

Our story begins in a town next to a mountain. It was originally a prosperous area that gained wealth from mining operations in the mountains, but these were eventually abandoned. Bandits took residence in the abandoned mines, and harassed the townsfolk. A bard named Tom and an elf named Elanor hired a small band of adventurers to eliminate a few bandits in the mountainside. It should have been a simple job, as these adventurers were very powerful.  However, right before our heroes could defeat the bandits, one of them pulled out a scroll that caused an earthquake that collapsed the tunnel. The adventurers were trapped with no way to get out! With nothing better to do they just feel asleep in the tunnel.

When they woke up they found that the entrance to the cave opened up, they were free! As they approached the entrance though, it was clear something was wrong. The once barren mountain was now overgrown with vegetation. How could this have happened? Worried, they ran back to town and everywhere they look moss and vines overtook every inch of the road and buildings. As they moved in and out of the buildings in the village they found people sprawled about asleep, yet no matter how much noise they made they couldn’t wake them. 

As they got to the center of the town, they finally found some people that were awake. A community of halflings made a small garden in the middle of the square. The halflings led the adventurers to the same bar where Elanor and Tom hired them, who were both still there. However Tom was now very old. Elanor told the adventurers that on the day they took down the bandits, everyone fell asleep. Everyone in the entire world as far as they could tell. Nobody knows how or why or for how long this lasted but it was for a very long time. Eventually people starting waking up. But not everyone. Most people are still stuck in their dreams, never aging. Not only that, but a floating tower appeared within range of the town. The reason why Tom was so old was because he was one of the first to wake up. He and his allies gathered together and investigated the tower, but only Tom made it back alive, and he’s been insane ever since.

Elanor told the adventurers that since Tom’s attempt, others have gone up to investigate the tower but never succeeded in coming back. However that did not deter our heroes. They went up the tower and succeeded in bringing it down.

The tower was perilous indeed. Each floor is covered in mist, which coalesces into materialized dreams of the people in the world who are still asleep. This ranged from an assassin sneaking up on the adventurers from the rooftops to a dwarven king defending his homeland against orcs. These dreams attacked the adventurers and there is no way to reason with them while they are in the dreams. They see what makes sense to them, so even though our heroes were a human druid, a ninja, and a duskblade the king saw them as monstrous orcs. 

At the very top the team fought against Tom and his band of adventurers who were trapped in their final battle against monstrous enemies. The adventurers barely managed to prevail, defeating the final floor of the tower. Thus the first tower fell, and by unknown means they caught a glimpse of a powerful being, He Who Sleeps, that caused the entire world to go to sleep.

Thus ends our first lesson and our first story. The First Tower fell and our enemy was found.